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Guide to Analysis Report

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

An electrocardiogram is a test record that measure the electrical activity of the heartbeat. With each beat, an electrical impulse (or “wave”) travels through the heart. This wave causes the muscle to squeeze and pump blood from the heart. A normal heartbeat on ECG will show the timing of the top and lower chambers. ECG is characterized by series of parameters that define how good heart is functioning. The key parameters are QT-Interval, QTC-Interval, PR-Interval, ST-Elevation, QRS-Interval.

ECG QRS Complex explained (link)

Heart Rate (Pulse Rate)

Your heart rate, or pulse, is the number of times your heart beats per minute. Normal heart rate varies from person to person. The average rate is between 70 and 85 beats per minute, greater than 100 beats per minute is labelled tachycardia, less than 60 beats per minute is labelled bradycardia (SB) but an athletic person may have a pulse rate as low as 40 or 50.

HRV

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is the variation in the time interval between one heartbeat and the next. It is measured as the time gap between your heart beat that varies as you breathe in and out. It related to rhythm of heart activity that is impacted by many factors including stress (link).

Oral Temperature

It’s the body temperature as recorded by a clinical thermometer placed under tongue with closed mouth. Oral temperature is most accurate non-invasive method compare to forehead method. Infection by bacteria such as COVID-19 or virus causes increase in oral temperature (fever). For women, basal temperature reading are also good indicator to ovulation periods.

SpO2

Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) is the saturation level of arterial blood with oxygen, expressed as percentage. Your red blood cells carry oxygen through your arteries to all of your internal organs. They must carry enough oxygen to keep you alive. Normally 95%- 100 % of red blood cells are loaded, or “saturated” with oxygen. Low SPO2 are indicative of respiratory disfunction (i.e. COVID-19) or lack of oxygen delivery to lungs.

Harvard Health Publications, Oxygen Saturation (link)

Perfusion Index (PI)

The ratio of the pulsatile blood flow to the non-pulsatile static blood flow in a patient’s peripheral tissue, such as fingertip, toe, or ear lobe. Perfusion index is an indication of the pulse strength at the sensor site. The PI’s values range from 0.02% for very weak pulse to 20% for extremely strong pulse. The perfusion index varies depending on patients, physiological conditions, and monitoring sites. Because of this variability, each patient should establish his own “normal” perfusion index for a given location and use this for monitoring purposes. A low PI indicates inaccurate SPO2 reading, and often sign of cold finger or hand resulting in poor blood circulation to arm and finger tip (warming hand can improve PI).

Retrieved from Amperor USA Direct (link)

Blood Pressure BP  (Systolic / Diastolic)

When your heart beats, it pumps blood round your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels. The strength of this pushing is your blood pressure.

The upper number of blood pressure. It indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls when the heart beats.

The lower number of blood pressure. It indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls while the heart is resting between beats. Hypo (low) or Hyper (high) tension are causes of concern when tracking blood pressure.

Retrieved from: American Heart Association, Understanding Blood Pressure Readings (link)

Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)

The average blood pressure in your arteries during the course of the measurement. The arithmetic mean of the blood pressure in the arterial part of the circulation, it is calculated by adding the systolic pressure reading to two times the diastolic reading and dividing the sum by 3. It provides measurement of overall status of the blood pressure.

Arterial Stiffness Index

Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI) is a number that correlates with arteriosclerosis. Because arteriosclerosis reduces flexibility in arteries, the higher the ASI, the more likely someone is to have hardening of the arteries, the lower the number, and the less likely but other important information can be obtained (link).

Respiration Rate

A person’s respiratory rate is the number of breaths you take per minute. The normal respiration rate for an adult at rest is 12 to 20 breaths per minute. A respiration rate under 12 or over 25 breaths per minute while resting is considered abnormal and cause for concern.

Glucose Level

Blood glucose is a sugar that the bloodstream carries to all cells in the body to supply energy. A person needs to keep blood sugar levels within a safe range to reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease.

It’s important to keep your blood sugar levels in your target range as much as possible to help prevent or delay long-term, serious health problems, such as heart diseasevision loss, and kidney disease. Staying in your target range can also help improve your energy and mood (link).

Atrial Fibrillation (AFIB)

Atrial fibrillation is an irregular and often rapid heart rate that can increase your risk of strokes, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

During atrial fibrillation, the heart’s two upper chambers (the atria) beat chaotically and irregularly — out of coordination with the two lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart. Atrial fibrillation symptoms often include heart palpitations, shortness of breath and weakness.

Episodes of atrial fibrillation may come and go, or you may develop atrial fibrillation that doesn’t go away and may require treatment. Although atrial fibrillation itself usually isn’t life-threatening, it is a serious medical condition that sometimes requires emergency treatment.

A major concern with atrial fibrillation is the potential to develop blood clots within the upper chambers of the heart. These blood clots forming in the heart may circulate to other organs and lead to blocked blood flow (ischemia)

Retrieved from MayoClinic (link)

Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)

Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a fast, abnormal heart rate. It starts in your heart’s lower chambers, called the ventricles. VT is defined as 3 or more heartbeats in a row, at a rate of more than 100 beats a minute. If VT lasts for more than a few seconds at a time, it can become life-threatening. Sustained VT is when the arrhythmia lasts for more than 30 seconds, otherwise the VT is called nonsustained. The rapid heartbeat doesn’t give your heart enough time to fill with blood before it contracts again. This can affect blood flow to the rest of your body (link).

Atrial Tachycardia (AT)

Atrial tachycardia a rapid heart rate, between 140 and 250 beats per minute, with the ectopic focus in the atria and with no participation by the atrioventricular node or the sinoatrial node. It is recognizable on the electrocardiogram because the P wave precedes the QRS complex, as opposed to being merged with it or following it. This condition is usually associated with atrioventricular block or digitalis toxicity.

Atrial tachycardia may also be triggered by factors such as an infection or drug or alcohol use. For some people, atrial tachycardia increases during pregnancy or exercise.

Retrieved from Medical Dictionary and MayoClinic.org (link)

Sinus bradycardia (SB)

Sinus bradycardia is a slow, regular heartbeat. It happens when your heart’s pacemaker, the sinus node, generates heartbeats less than 60 times in a minute. For some people, such as healthy young adults and athletes, sinus bradycardia can be normal and a sign of cardiovascular health

Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)

Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are extra heartbeats that begin in one of your heart’s two lower pumping chambers (ventricles). These extra beats disrupt your regular heart rhythm, sometimes causing you to feel a fluttering or a skipped beat in your chest.

Premature ventricular contractions are common — they occur in many people. They’re also called:

  • Premature ventricular complexes
  • Ventricular premature beats
  • Ventricular extrasystoles

If you have occasional premature ventricular contractions, but you’re otherwise healthy, there’s probably no reason for concern, and no need for treatment. If you have frequent premature ventricular contractions or underlying heart disease, you might need treatment.

Retrieved from MyoClinic.org (link)

Premature Atrial Contraction (PAC)

Premature atrial contractions (PACs) are premature heartbeats that are similar to PVCs, but occur in the upper chambers of the heart, an area known as the atria.

PACs do not typically cause damage to the heart and can occur in healthy individuals with no known heart disease. 

Patients with PACs often do not experience symptoms and are diagnosed incidentally. Those who do experience symptoms often complain of a skipped heartbeat or extra beat, also known as palpitations. These are caused by the contraction coming prematurely in the heart’s cycle, resulting in an ineffective pulse or heartbeat. These symptoms frequently occur at night or during relaxation, when the heart’s natural pacemaker, the sinus node, slows down. PAC patients may also experience dizziness or chest pain.

Retrieved from UMCVC.org. (link)

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR)

A measure of changes in emotional arousal recorded by attaching electrodes to any part of the skin and recording changes in moment-to-moment perspiration and related autonomic nervous system activity and emotional response (link).

Activity Level

The evidence is clear—physical activity can make you feel better, function better, and sleep better. Even one session of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reduces anxiety, and even short bouts of physical activity are beneficial. Being physically active also fosters normal growth and development, improves overall health, can reduce the risk of various chronic diseases (link).

Risk Factors

Defining your risk factors allows analytics AI engine to better define your report and recommendation. This is also used to better compute a health score.

Body composition

The relative proportions of protein, fat, water, and mineral components in the body. It varies among individuals as a result of differences in body density and degree of obesity. Following parameters collectively define a person’s body composition.

(i) Weight

Do you know if your current weight is healthy? “Underweight”, “normal”, “overweight”, and “obese” are all labels for ranges of weight. Obese and overweight mean that your weight is greater than it should be for your health. Underweight means that it is lower than it should be for your health. Your healthy body weight depends on your sex and height. For children, it also depends on your age.

A sudden, unexpected change in weight can be a sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include

  • Thyroid problems
  • Cancer
  • Infectious diseases
  • Digestive diseases
  • Certain medicines

Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease.

Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

(ii) Body fat

The percentage of a person’s body that is not composed of water, muscle, bone, and vital organs. Ideal body fat is critical to good health.

(iii) Body water:

Body water is the water content of the human body. A significant fraction of the human body is water. Proper hydration level is important to functioning health especially among older demographics.

(iv) Body mass index (BMI)

Body mass index (BMI) is a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. BMI is an inexpensive and easy screening method for weight category—underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obesity.

BMI does not measure body fat directly, but BMI is moderately correlated with more direct measures of body fat. Furthermore, BMI appears to be as strongly correlated with various metabolic and disease outcome as are these more direct measures of body fatness.

Body mass in kg divided by height in meters squared (kg.m-2) used to evaluate the extent of adiposity. The WHO classification for BMI is: less than 18.5, underweight; 18.5-24.9, normal weight; 25-29.9, pre-obese; 30-34.9, obese class I; 35-39.9, obese class II; greater than 40, obese class III. These predicted values cannot be used in children, pregnant women and certain other adult subjects. Also a high BMI can lead to an overestimation of fatness in relatively lean individuals with a disproportionately high muscle mass because of genetic make-up or exercise training; this applies, for example, to body builders, weightlifters or upper weight class wrestlers.

Retrieved from Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine by Churchill and CDC (link)

(v) Basal metabolic rate (BMR):

The metabolic rate as measured 12 hr after eating, after a restful sleep, with no exercise or activity preceding testing, with elimination of emotional excitement, and at a comfortable temperature. It is usually expressed in terms of kilocalories per square meter of body surface per hour. It increases, for example, in hyperthyroidism. Synonym: resting energy expenditure.

(vi) Bone density:

A measurement corresponding to the mineral density of bone, used to diagnose osteopenia and osteoporosis. Also called bone mineral density.

(vii) Visceral fat:

Fat that accumulates around internal organs, esp. Organs within the peritoneum, pleura, or pericardium. It is more common in men than in women. It contributes to insulin resistance and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome.

(viii) Muscle mass:

Muscle mass is a term for the bulk of muscular tissue in a person’s body. There are three different kinds of muscle in the human body, but muscle mass almost always refers to skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is the most visible and directly contributes to strength and power.